The contrition of a Protestant preacher, converted to be a Catholiqve scholler conteyning certayne meditations vpon the fourth penitentiall psalme, Miserere / composed by Iames Waddesworth, MEDITATION IV.
King David Playin a Psaltery
Ecce enim in iniquitatibus conceptus sum: & in peccatis concepit me mater mea.
For beholde I was conceiued in iniquityes: and in sinnes my mother conceiued me.
A PARAPHASTICALL EXPOSITION OF the former wordes. Sect. 1.
1. O Lorde, I began to request thy great mercy, and therfore I procede to recounte my manifolde misery: for frō a good nature the bare sighte of misery craueth bountifull effectes of pity. Haue pity therfore (o most bountifull & gracious God of all good nature) haue pity on a wretche who hath bene miserable from his very inance▪ and who euen in his cradle was wrapte in the bandes of wretchednes & woe.
2. Myne actuall sinnes are as thornes & thistles; but their roote is in my originall corruption: o roote out this roote, as well as cutte of those branches▪ And as whe [...] there falls much rayne, the plenty of water floudes caryeth away abundance of filthe; therfore whiles the multitude of thy mercyes are flowing, I desire thee to washe me yet more from all my offences: Beholde allso my originall sinne, which as the secret filthe of my hidden sluttish corners, I doo now bring forthe to be caste into these water floudes of great mercy; that all may be made cleane whiles there is water for all. And since I am lamenting the faultes of my life, why shoulde I not bewayle the guiltynes of my birthe? one griefe calls another to memory; and so whiles I consider how vile I am in my selfe, I cannot but remembrer how base I came from my parentes: for originall sinne is a portion of myne inheritance, which as it must iustly serue to hū ble my pride, & bewayle my wretchednes; so may it therfore allso please thee, o lord, to pardon my actuall faultes, considering my naturall weakenes:
3. For in such a sorte, the same speche in a different sense may be an accusation & an excusation,Eutropius a prayse and disprayse: as Caius Laelius being reproched as one degnerate and vnworthy of his noble ancestors, replyed to the reuyler being a base person; But thou arte neither vnworthy nor degnerate frō thy ignominious predecessors: So we must all confesse our corrupte Pedigree from Adam; and also these wordes here which doo serue further to accuse our selues of sinne, may likewise be alledged to mooue pity, because in some sorte it proceedeth from our naturall infirmity. Is it any marueil if he somtime sinke vnder water, who alwayes in his swimming hath a great bagge of garbage or some other heauy filthe by his owne faulte, euer tyed or cleauing to his body? It is true, o lorde, thy grace and other helpes are more then sufficient to holde vs vp if we will fasten and keepe on our holde: but seing we haue such a lothsome burden of originall corruption continually drawing vs downewarde, as we [Page 29]oughte to be humble & ashamed because it is lothsome, so because it is a burden, if it doo not diminishe the faulte, yet it doth intreate pardon.
4. Ecce in iniquitatibus conceptus sum: O lorde I am so very a wretche, that I am vncleane and polluted in sinne euen from my mothers wombe: yet herein, o lorde, haue mercy vpon me because it was bred and borne with me. I confesse thy sufficient meanes proffered to deliuer me from this thraldome; yet spare me, I beseech thee▪ for being borne with much sinnefull frailty, I haue too much inclined to my naturall weakenes: my desires and lustes of nature haue often caryed my consent from thy motions and inspirations of grace. O giue me yet grace to ouercome theses desires: and since they proceede of my corrupte nature, o let me finde the more helpe to conquer them, and the more mercy to pardon them.
DAVID IN THE FORMER VERSE ACcuseth not his parentes; nor is the Acte of mariage of it selfe any sinne. Sect. 2.
1. DAuid here doth not accuse his Father Iesse, as if he had begottē him in adultery (for it is certein he was lawfully borne) much lesse in that respecte therfore excuse his owne faulte with Bersabee,Innocent. 3. as if it were naturall for Bastardes to become Adultere [...]s. Nor doth he meane any Actuall sinne, which his parentes mighte paraduenture haue cōmitted in his generation: for their actuall sinne doth neither infecte, nor perteyneth to the childe.
2. But as there is a Conception of humane seede in the action of carnall copulation; so there is a Conception of humane nature in the substance of that which is engendred: In the firste, as in their owne action, the parentes many times doo offend: yet not in that, but in the second doo we contracte & participate our originall corruption, as being of the substance of humane nature, which is deriued vnto vs by our parentes from Adam.
3. In the firste, euen maryed couples may offend throughe inordinate luste: thoughe paraduenture by the Priuiledges (which are called the Goods) of matrimony, that may be but veniall in them, which in others is criminall: And yet their luste and other circunstances may be so disordenate, that in their copulations they allso doo committe somtimes euen mortall faultes: for a man may offend and be vnchaste with his owne wife, as well as become dronke with his owne wyne.
4. Not that the Acte of matrimony is of it selfe euill & sinnefull:S. Tho. 3. par. q. 4 9. a. 4.5.6. Nauar. Man. in. 6. praecept cap. 16. num. 3. & num. 32. &c. But as it is sinne to eate or drinke imtemperately; or to eate, when, or what we are forbidden: so maryed couples doo offend in the vse of matrimony, being immoderate in excesse, or in times, or places prohibited; or in the manner immodest, or vnnaturall.
5. Otherwise matrimony being an office of nature, and a Sacrament of the churche, the due accomplishment therof is not a sinne: for as it is naturall, it intendeth prolem to haue children: and it keepeth fidem obseruing the faithfull title and promise giuen of eche to others body: Beside which, among Catholique Christians this Sacrament giueth grace; and betokens the loue and vnion betwene Christe and his churche.
6. And these three; proles; fides; & Sacramentum▪ Progeny: fidelity: & the Sacrament are called Bona matrimonij, the Goods or benefites of matrimony. To the first is referred not only the generation, but allso the good education of children. The second, is not meante to be theological faithe, but vertuous fidelity, as it is a parte of Iustice, [Page 30]in obseruing true loue & loyalty, and in yeilding mutuall dutyes & assistance ech to other: and so for performance of all these perteyning both to progeny and fidelity is required vsuall cohabitatiō, excepte when some vrgent or greater cause doo necessarily enforce any absence. The third, which is the sacrament (if the partyes hinder it not by indisposition) giueth grace of vnion, when the contracte is lawfully made by expresse wordes of the present, or by apparent signes of consent; by which grace their mindes are extraordinarily knit & vnited in honest and discrete loue. And as our Sauiour Christes loue to his churche is inseparable, so the sacramentality of mariage grounded herevpon, causeth this bond of mariage Among Christians to be so indiuisible, that thoughe in some cases they may be separated from bed and boarde, or from cohabitation; yet the mariage at the firste, or afterwardes hauing bene once lawfull, they can neuer be so disioyned, that either parte may mary agayne whiles the other doth liue.
7. These three foresaid Goods or benefites of matrimony, doo cause the copulation of man & wife,Vide S. Tho. vbi supra. not only not to be sinne, but to be a good action of vertue; when it procedeth either from intention of progeny, or hath purpose yeilding mutuall fidelity; yea, it is an action of sanctity or holynes when it respecteth the sacramentality, depending on the great mistery of holy loue betwene Christe and his churche.
8. Wherfore no Catholiques euer termed lawfull mariage duely vsed, to be vncleanes,Cardinal. Bellarm. de matrimo. Sac. lib. 1. c. 5. Lib. 1. pollution, & carnall filthynes (as Caluin & others doo sclander vs herein, as they vse to doo allso almost in all other pointes) but they either reprehend vnlawfull mariages; or true mariages vnlawfully vsed. Or as S. Ierome writeth against Iouinian, the carnall acte betwene maryed Couples may in some sense be called vncleanes (as it is said in the Apocalipse. These are they who were not polluted with women▪ for they are virgins) eyther in cōparison of pure virginity: for thoughe in the acte of mariage it is possible they may kepe one perfection of chastity, yet they doo herein euer loose the higher perfection of vndefiled virginity; & so maryed partyes may be called cōparatiuely defiled with women. Or else their carnall delighte in copulation may be called fleshly pollution; eyther as caused of the remnants of our carnall concupiscence, and of that same naturall rebellious disobedience of our flesh against our reason; or because for the moste parte by many maryed people it is often vsed excessiuely, or disornately, neither referred to progeny, fidelity, nor to any other honest end without some of which intentions it is sinne, at least veniall: and so, why may it not somtime be called or named according as it is most commonly practised? not expressing or so strictely naming the lawfull vse, but so insinuating the vnlawfull and vsuall abuse. For we knowe, that the moderate and ordinate vse is so farre from being sinne, that S. Paul commandeth maryed couples to yeild ech to other mutuall beneuolence:Dyonis. Carchus. [...]. cor. 7. and all Catholique Doctors so accompte it a worke meritorious, as an acte of vertue, and of religion; orderly, as holy, religious, vertuous, & meritorious. And so speaketh S. Augustin therof when it is intended 1. as an Acte of justice, or 2. of obedience, or 3. of charity; directed eyther firste to procreation of children to be broughte vp in the seruice of God; or secondly to the performance of promised fidelity for auoyding fornication;S. Aug. contra Iulian. 1.4. cap. 5. or thirdly for rendring ech to other mutuall loue and duty. And when their modest delightes (how intensiue soeuer in nature) are directed to all or to any of the forementioned purposes, as they are vertuous and cannot be condemned; so on the contrary, when they are soughte for luste, and without any of the former respectes, then (how feeble soeuer nature be) they cannot be excused.
9. This I haue said, to shew that neither Dauid complayneth of any actuall sinne committed by his parents in his generation,Ruffinus. S. Aug. nor that the lawfull orderly vse of matrimony [Page 31]hath of it selfe any sinne. Not if it had; the particuler faultes of our parents could not be ascribed to their children.
WHY OVR MOTHER IS MENTIONED TO BE Accessary to our originall sinne, rather then our Father: wheras indeed it comes more from Adam then from either. Sect. 3.
1. NExte let vs cōsider, why he rather mentioneth his mother in this case of originall sinne; and not his father: especially seing all our Deuines affirme; that althoughe Eua had sinned, yet if Adam had remayned innocent, originall sinne should not haue bene deriued vnto their posterity. Because, they say, Adam alone as a publique person and generall father of all mankind, did represent the persons of all his successors; and for them as well as for himselfe did receiue originall iustice, by the losse wherof he broughte vs all (as being partes of him as our natural head) into this detriment of originall sinne. Wherfore, in the same respecte allso, thoughe Cayn or any other sinner had first sinned, Adam being still vprighte, yet their sinne should only haue deformed themselues, and not haue perteyned to vs: because we are comprehended in none as our generall father saue only in Adam.
2. Further it is alledged in fauor of the woman, that she concurreth but passiuely vnto generation, as only giuing the materiall parte of conceptione, not inducing the actiue forme, which procedeth from the man, who therfore by phylosophers and physicians is accompted the principall partye and cheifer cause of generation. And yet here about originall sinne the mother is named only and not the father, because at the time of our quickening (when first in deede we doo contracte originall sinne) then we are in her wombe, then she kepeth and norisheth vs, and not the father: and so she is said to conceiue vs in sinne, not mentioning the father.
3. And thoughe Eua coulde not be Author of original sinne to all her posterity, as is afore sayd; yet our nexte parentes, both man and woman, being alwayes the instrumentes and successiue conueyors of originall sinne by descendence from Adam (I say our parentes and auncestors are conueyors and instrumentes, not causes or Authors', for only Adam is so to be accompted) And seing the mother is the materiall instrumente and conduyte, which is more euident to our sense then the formall, the [...]fore is she allso named rather then the father.
4. Allso I said, that in deede and really we doo only contracte originall sinne at the time when we are quickened and receiue life in our mothers wombe: for thoughe at the instante of the very first conception, those informed and mixed seedes may be said improperly in debito to haue an obligacion to be afterward subiect to originall sinne, when it comes to be a liuing humane creature; yet properly and truly in effecto the childe is not infected with originall sinne, vntill it come to haue the soule infused and vnited to the body; which is not till the quickening: and hauing no soule it is not a perfecte humane creature; but only little more then a masse of flesh, which without soule cannot be said to be really capable of any sinne.
5. Wherfore at that time being in the mothers wombe, and allso hauing bene there norished vntill that time, and so maynteyned afterwarde vntill the Birthe, the mother is rather named then the father: And so here the hebrew worde Hama doth signifye, to giue heate, which naturall hea [...]e of the mothers wombe cherishing the infante,Pagnin. Genebra. some [Page 32]read it thus;S. Aug. S. Hierom. with sinnes my mother gaue me heate; and S. Augustin readeth it, In sinnes my mother norished me: and S. Ierome: In sinnes my mother broughte me forthe.
4. And allso as S. Thomas distinguisheth twoo birthes: Nasci in vtero, and nasci ex vtero: to be borne in the wombe, when the soule is infused, and we become rea [...]onable creatures. And to be borne out of the wombe when we firste come into this lighte. So there is a twofolde conception (as hath bene said) first of humane seede, which is at the very first generation: and secondly a conception of humane nature, when at the quickening we receiue our soule. This second conception, and the first Birthe in vtero, are all one: and because then properly we are first in deede capable of originall sinne, therfore we may be so sayd, eyther to be borne of our mother in originall sinne, viz: in the first birthe: or to be conceiued of her in originall sinne viz: in the second conception. But at any of these Birthes, or conceptions, we are rather said to be conceiued or borne of our mother, then of our father; because to conceiue or beare children, they are termes and propertyes perteyning to our mothers, and cannot be said or aptely affirmed of our fathers.
WHAT ORIGINALL SINNE IS, AND how it is deriued vnto vs: allso how it is accompted a guilty faulte in children.
1. NOw let vs see what Originall sinne is; in his owne nature; & what effect it hath in vs. In his owne nature Originall sinne is a priuation or wante of Originall iustice which iustice God haue vnto Adam, and he oughte to haue preserued in our nature. In vs; the effect of originall sinne, is a corrupte disposition and deformitie of our nature, proceeding from the losse of originall iustice, by wante wherof there ariseth in vs that same fewell of sinne & concupiscence, deriued vnto vs from the publique disobedience of Adam, by ordinarie humane generation. It is a corrupte disposition; as is sicknes. It is a deformity; for all sinne spotteth & blemisheth.Vide Alexand. de Hales. p. 2. q. 105. memb. 2. a 3: &c. It perteynes more to our nature, then to our person; for it is alike common to all. The formall cause is the priuatiue losse of originall iustice. Adams publique faulte, as being our generall Father, was the efficient cause. And the instrumentall is, humane generation which is ordinary; not with priuiledge, as was the conception of our Blessed lady; nor extraordinary miraculous, as the incarnacion of our Sauiour.
2. This corrupte disposition of our nature (according to Hugo de sancto Victore & some others) we contracte from our birthe By ignorance in our minde: and By concupiscence in our flesh. Not denying but there is concupiscence allso in the minde: which blindeth our vnderstanding,Vide magist. sent. lib. 2. dist. 30. & Scolast. ib which concupiscence of the minde is moste cheifly a sinne: and that concupiscence which is in our flesh, is both a sinne, & punishment. For so deuines say that Originall sinne is in vs both a faulte and a punishment: his faulte consistes, in the losse of originall iustice, and by wante of that iustice in the deformity of our nature: his penalty consistes in that concupiscence or fomes peccati; which foloweth that former losse, & is an harbenger of succeding actuall sinne, which fomes is in Infantes concupiscibilitie, and in them of riper age is called concupiscence
3. Nexte let vs see, How this originall corruption is our owne sonne, & deriued vnto vs from Adam without faulte of our other auncestors or parentes generation. In respecte of which difficultyes.Epist. 29. ad S. Hier S. Augustin aduiseth them who cannot comprehend it, as being secrete; yet not to reprehend it as vniuste: rather let such content themselues to know [Page 33]and vse the remedi [...], then to repyne or cauill because they vnderstand not how they came into this misery. As one falling into a Well (where was so much water as serued to saue him from bruysing to death, & yet not so much as suffized to styfle him from speache) being found and asked with wonder, how he came to fall into such a place? he answered. I pray seeke meanes how to helpe me out; and stand not marueiling how I fell in. Neuertheles among learned deuines, euen this difficulty is vnfolded against Pelagius, Faber, Erasmus, Zuinglius, & the Anabaptistes.
4. First S. Paul saith. Sicut per vnum hominem: as by one man sinne entred into the worlde, and by sinne death ▪ & afterward. In whom all haue sinned. and againe.Rom. [...]. By the disobedience of one man, many are made sinners. Therfore it appeares, that children being subject to death, are subject to this sinne. But infantes haue no actuall sinne: therfore he must needes meane sinne originall And this he saith comes, by one ma [...]. and by Adam▪ in whom all are. By him; as our generall father: in whose publique disobedience we are all partakers; as the children of a Traytor are taynted: and the body of a towne corporate; are subject to the actes of their head gouernors.
5. And so to that obiection, How can it be sinne in infants who neuer had vse of will to giue consent? It is answered. That originall sinne is on our behalfe i [...] some sorte voluntary in Adam, in whose Wille & person, S. Aug. lib. de nupt [...]s cap. [...]8. Et lib. retract▪ 1. cap. 13. & 15. Lib. de peccat▪ merit. c. 7 Exech. 18 S. Hierom in cap 18, exech. S. Aug. i [...] psal. 108▪ & lib. contra Adim [...]nt. [...]. 7. S. Chrysost. in Gen. ho [...]. 29. & in math. [...]. 75. S. Greg. moral. lib 15. c. 22. S. Tho. 1.2. q. 87. a. [...] all our persons and wills were included: for he was our Head; a publique person representing all mankind; our first roote wherof all the branches must sauour; and our Generall father in whom we are all so comprised that what he did, it was allso our deede. As among men, the fathers facte often redoundeth to the benifite or prejudice of his sonne: and as vnto lawes are not requisite the expeesse consent of euery man in the cuntry, but only of those parlament men, who as publique persons doo represent all the common wealthe: But with God, none are punished absolutely for others faultes; but euery one for his owne. And therfore the Councell of Trent hath defined of original sinne, that it is cuius (que) proprium: in which respecte euery infante is punished therein for his owne faulte, whose punishment as it bringeth no sensible payne, because it hath exilem rationem voluntarij, only a consent included in the publique will of Adam; yet it wanteth the blessed fruition of glory, propter latissimum foeditatem mali, because it is so generall a deformity or spotte of our corrupte nature spread ouer all our powers of body & soule: with which blemishes no creature may appeare in the glorious presence of allmighty God, before whom there can remayne nothing vncleane.
6. Infantes then being subject to this punishment for originall sinne, it must needes be properly their owne sinne, and not for their fathers faulte. For as Ezechiel saith. The soule which sinneth shall dye: the sonne shall not beare the iniquity of his father: nor shall the father beare the iniquity of the sonne. Nor is that contrary hereunto which is in the firste commandement; Visiting the sinnes of the fathers on the children vnto the thirde and fourthe generation in them that hate me: for the auncyent and present wryters doo generally vnderstand this visitation, to be when the children doo imitate, or participate, the sinnes of theyr predecessors: and so visitare, is visum iterare: to visite, is to come and see the same sinnes. Or admitte it be to visite 1. to chastize and punish: yet he threatens it only to the 3. and 4. generation, in them which hate him: meaning, if these generations doo hate him, as their fathers did: for a generation which shoulde loue God, shall not be punished for their faultes, who before did hate him. At least, not in eternall punishments. Wherfore eternall losse of glory being an eternall punishment laid vpon Infantes dying in originall sinne, doubtles they vndergoe it for their owne, and not for any parents faulte.
7. And thoughe I graunted, that somtime temporally in this worlde God punished the children in regarde of the parentes offences, so far forthe as the damage of the children may be a greife, or a penalty to the parentes: yet I verily thinke (saluo semper meliori judicio; praesertim s [...]nctae matris Ecclesiae) that euen such their temporall punishment are not alone for their parentes faultes, but that the children themselues haue allso deserued the same. And then, both at once, the parentes are punished by the calamityes of their children (as being partes of themselues) and the children likewise suffer such temporall punishments justly for their owne originall guyltynes, or offences actuall.
ORIGINALL SINNE COMES FROM Adam alone as Principall: and how bad parentes haue good children &c. Sect. 4.
1. WHerfore I say, Originall sinne and his punishments are deriued only from Adam, as principall; vnto vs as Accessaryes; with whom as our Generall head, all mankinde maketh but one body. And no Infantes are herein punished for their other mediate or imediate next parentes offences. For S. Paul saith. By one man sinne entred into the worlde, Rom. 5. [...]ōcil. Mi [...]euit. cap. 2. Can. 2.which the Mileuitan Councell saith is originall sinne, contracted by generation from Adam.
2. And therfore diuerse Auncyent Fathers wrote against those Heretiques; who woulde conclude that the Acte of mariage was of it selfe euill, because the children begotten were borne in originall sinne, which they suppose falsely to be deriued from the copulation of the parentes, as the next causes, as well of the Accidentall sinne, as of the reall substance of the infantes: wheras in truthe (distinguishing betwene the one & the other) they shoulde haue referred the cause of that sinne vnto Adam alone; as doth. S Paul, saying By one man, and should haue ascribed only the substance of the soule, & body, to God, & the parentes. For suppose the Parents be odious Adulterers, or doo sinne much in other circumstances of generation; yet as allmighty God doth concurre & cooperate to the naturall worke of conception; creating & ininfusing soules euen in children vnlawfully begotten, where he forbiddes & abhorres the morall dishonesty: So likewise the parents doo participate in the naturall propagation,S. Hieron. lib. 3. Apol. contra Ruffin. without communicating this originall corruption. Euen as stolne corne being sowen in forbidden grounde, doth neuertheles growe as other corne doth, by the helpe of God & nature of the earthe: and yet herein, neither doth our lorde consent to the thefte; nor is it a bad action to sowe corne, but to steale it▪ or to sowe it contrary to commandement where he should not.
3. And thoughe the infante that is borne, offend not actually: nor the parents who beget the body;S. Aug. lib. de Nupt. Idem. lib. 2. de peccat. merit. cap. 25.26. &c. nor our lorde who creates the soule: yet we are borne polluted with originall sinne; not as the proper effecte of mariage or generation; but as an ordinary accident vsually following the conception of our humane nature, in respecte we are the posterity & members of Adam our head, By whom only sinne entred vpon all mankind. And herehence is the reason: why parentes iustifyed & in state of grace, doo neuertheles beget children subiecte to sinne & originall corruption, as much as others; not so much becau [...]e generation is an acte of our carnall man, & iustification is an effecte in our spirituall man (for the wholeman is iustifyed) but especially because [Page 35]we and euery creature generamus nobis similes: in specie, magis quàm in indiuiduo: we doo procreate our of-spring ech creature like himselfe, rather like in speciall kinde of nature, then in particuler propertyes of person; as of men to proceede mankind &c. For as the progeny was neuer like the parent in euery personall respect; so when they are a like in many such particulers, yet it is rather accidentally contingent, then essentially necessary: And so we see foolish or lame parents haue sound or discreete children; and contratiwise. As then parents doo not necessarily communicate to children their personall propertyes (no not of nature, much lesse of grace) so to be in state of grace a iustifyed man, is a personall property: and therfore mo more maruell to haue children vnregenerate borne of iuste parentes; then to see a childe borne vncircumcised of a circumcised lew: or to see a cleansed wheat corne, bring forthe an eare of wheate, which againe hath fazells & chaffe.
HOW ORIGINALL SINNE IS DERIVED from Adam by meanes of our parents and yet we haue not our soules from them, ex traduce. Sect. 5.
1. ANd allthoughe Originall sinne be a corruption of our nature, rather then an personall faulte, yet it is not any parte of our nature, as proceding from nature positiuely, but only a priuation or defecte folowing nature, and proceding from Adams freewill; and infecting our will as partes & branches of Adam▪ Wherfore it is properly a sinne, because it had consent of will thervnto; which we cannot say of other naturall defectes, as to be borne deafe, dumbe, blinde, lame, or disfigured; because these are no way referred to any consent of will.
Allso infantes neither haue thoughtes, wordes, nor deedes, against the eternall law of God: and yet they haue this originall sinne, which is not conteyned in that description for that description is vnderstood of actuall sinne only: But originall sinne consistes not in any action, for it is only a gultines, a spotte, or blemish; no [...] any actuall transgression.
2. As for that Argument of the Pelagians, which so much pressed S. Augustin, about the traduction of our soule, it is thus propounded, and answered. Sinne, say they hath his seate in the soule, not in the flesh: But the soule is created, & not deriued from Adam, nor our parents; therfore neither is this originall sinne deriued from the one, or from the other by generation, but foloweth by imitation.
Firste it is answered in generall, that it cannot be by imitation, because neither can children imitate their parents so soone as they are borne; and yet euen then most agree they are guilty of originall sinne. Nor is this sinne any action; and therfore no imitation; for to imitate, is to doo somewhat; but it is called sinne originall not actuall; and is accompted a guilte of our nature, not a facte of our person. Alexand. de Hales 2. part. q. 105. memb 4. S. Bonauēt in sent. l. 2. d. 31. in principal. q. 1.
3. Next, about the proposition. As all deuines agree that the soule is the seate of sinne; so yet if the soule may herin be depraued by the flesh, as some thinke, then may originall sinne be transfused into the soule by generation of the body. These men say the flesh must needes be the meanes of cōueying this sinne vnto the soule as vnto his seate: for if the soule should be created alone, and not be ioyned to the body, it should in that case be free from this infection. And it seemes iuste, that as Adams flesh was firste corrupted by his soule which firste admitted sinne; so now the soule shoulde be firste corrupted by the flesh still deriuing sinne: and so originall sinne, is [Page 36]both a corruption of penality subiecting vs to all misery: and a corruption of viciosity inclyning vs to all sinne▪ 1. by rebellion against the spirite, 2. by drawing the soule downeward. 3. because the soule of it selfe is not able to gouerne all our appetites without diuine grace.
4. Thus therfore, say they, that the flesh doth depraue the soule, being vnited vnto it, as a wounde in the body maketh the soule grieue; but if you cutte the flesh wanting life, it feeles no payne: So the flesh hath not sinne in it selfe as in his seate, no more then wyne hath in it selfe dronkennes, and yet maketh others dronke: and so the body is able to infecte, & to worke vpon the soule. 1. not by predominance, as one elemēt or mixte body vpon another. 2▪ nor by influence, as the heauens vpon these inferior bodyes. 3. nor by deuine power, as the fyre vpon dammed spirites but. 4. by Sympathy of vnited correspondence, as in a phrensy, or lunacy, such a distemper or quality of the body makes the minde to be madde or foolish. And so the corrupte distemper of our flesh doth disorder our soule whit sinfullnes: which sinfull distē per is not actually but dispositiuely in the seede of the parent, or flesh of the infante: nor is it in the flesh vntill it come to be ioyned to the soule, which is only the full & finall seate of sinne.
5. And note that all this may be true, in respecte of that radicall concupiscence, which is as it were the positiue materiall parte of originall sinne:S. Ansel. deconcep. virginal. cap. 7. & 10. but the formall true nature of originall sinne consisting priuatiuely in the wāte of originall iustice; this priuation is not caused nor conueyed vnto the soule by the flesh▪ Nor by that carnall luste, which more or lesse, is in the naturall generation of all men. For if by supernaturall priuiledge any parents should engendre without all luste, yet the childe shoulde be infected with originall sinne: or if luste were the cause therof, [...]hen according to the excesse of luste in the parents,Scotus in lib. 2. sent. d. 31. shoulde originall sinne be more or lesse in the children. Wherfore thoughe. S. Augustin doo often say, that it is not generation, but luste which doth deriue this sinne, he only intendes to shew, that the sole acte of generation is not the only cause of originall sinne; for euen in paradise there shoulde haue bene the acte of generation,Lib. de peccat. m [...]ritis. Lib. de nupt. & concupisc. Lib. 5. cō tra Iulia [...]m. c. 3. and yet therin shoulde haue bene no sinne. But by luste may be meante the propagation of our corrupte nature, of which corruption, luste is a certein signe & effecte: wherfore when he saith originall sinne is deriued by luste, he meaneth, that this corrupte propagation of our nature (wherof luste is a signe) is the meanes to deriue originall sinne.
6. And so when. S. Augustin saith of the body and the soule, that the one is corrupted in the other as in an Vncleane vessell, eyther it may be true by way of morall comparison in regarde of that concupiscence radicall (as is afore said) which, in some is the materiall positiue parte of originall sinne, & hauing his materiall seate in the flesh, by this dispositiuely the soule may be infected in the body. Or it must be vnderstoo [...] of the complete cōiunction of the soule with the flesh which is seminally deriued from Adam; at which time of their conioyned vnion we firste become perfect humane creatures; and so then (& not before) we are corrupted, when the soule & body are conioyned: for then firste, are we perfect humane creatures capable of sinne: and then are we firste complete sonnes & members of Adam. And so then is originall sinne contracted, and the soule seemeth as is were to be polluted in the body, as in an vncleane vessell: not that any actuall infection of sinne was in the flesh before the soule was infused, which corruption should streight redounde out of the nature of the flesh into the soule so soone as euer it was infused; nor when the soule was created a parte by it selfe in the body (for in the body it is created) that then al [...]ighty God▪ [Page 37]created it with originall sinne cleauing to it. I say that neither of these can be: for the body alone, or soule alone, is not a complete perfect man, nor so capable of sinne; and therfore till they be ioyned they are not Adams posterity, nor so infected with originall sinne, which (for better memory sake, & vnderstanding) agayne I say, is then firste fastened on vs, so soone as we become perfect humane creatures deriued from Adam, and so are considered as partes & progeny of him, by whom alone originall sinne is entred vpon all mankinde.
7. And so lastly, it is answered to the Pelagians assumption, and inference▪ Vidz: The soule is not deriued from Adam; nor therfore originall sinne which is in the soule. That originall sinne in the soule, is not considered to belong thervnto; whither we falsely suppose the soule to be traduced from Adam, or whither we beleeue it truly to be created of God; but only in respecte that the soule being ioyned to the body, then makes a complete creature, who is a parte or member of Adam, and so only capable & subiect to this originall sinne. Allso furthermore consider: that to the end that sinne should be deriued from Adam, it is not necessary that the soule allso be deriued from him: but it is enoughe if the complete reasonable creature (wherof the soule is a parte) be in descent a member of Adam. And obserue: that generation is not finished in the production of the forme or soule alone, nor of the matter or body alone, but in the complete coniunction & vnion of both together: wherfore he may be said to be the next cause of generation, who is the next cause of this coniunction▪ But our parentes doo so dispose & affoarde the materiall parte, which is the seede or body, that the soule which is the forme, must in order of nature necessarily followe & come to be conioyned thervnto: in which sense, a man is said to beget a man, and so thoughe he be not Author of the soule, yet he is called father of the whole creature, because he is in nature the next cause of this vnion & coniunction of the soule with the body. Thus therfore I conclude, that we deriue originall sinne from Adam only, as being our generarll father alone; for thoughe our other auncestors & parents be the instrumentall causes or as conduytes the con [...]eyors hereof; yet only Adam is the cheife cause & founteyne, from whom we doo deriue this originall corruption: but not from him, nor them, as Authors of our soules: saue only from him as the roote, & by our parents as the branches, all we doo participate of this bitter fruite.
OVR SAVIOVR; AND OVR B. LADY WERE exempted from Originall sinne. Sect 6.
1. NEuertheles, from this generall rule are ex [...]epted our Sauiour Christ & his holy mother.Cardinal Sarna. in conciliat. S. Tho. & Scoti. lib. 3. controuers. 3. Vnto our L. Iesus originall sinne did neither perteyne in facto nor in debito. Vnto the blessed Virgin in debito as du [...], but not in deede in facto. Vnto all vs it belongeth, both in deede, and as our due. As the vndefiled virgin was a member & a daughther of Adam, seminally deriu [...]d, so was Original sinne due to her nature as a parte of him▪ And besides, there is a conception of seede to frame the body, when the childe is firste of all engendred; and a conception of of complete nature, when the soule coming to that body, it is so first quickened. [...]rom the first engendring till the perfect quickening, originall sinne is in preparatiue possibility due to that body which is in framing, because it descendes semi [...]ally fr [...]m Adam: But it cannot take possession in facte vntill the soule be ioyned, & [Page 38]the whole creature perfectly quickened: for where there is no soule, there can be no sinne.
2. In the firste conception, Originall sinne was due to our blessed lady, according to naturall possibility: But in the very instant of the second conception, and before the complete vnion of the soule, by supernaturall grace it was kepte from my possession in facte, & she was extraordinarily preuented & preserued in all cleare purity. Some few others haue bin cleared and purifyed from originall sinne after their perfect quickening, & before their birthe: But our blessed lady before both: so that she was no sooner a liuing creature, but she was of God the father a sanctifyed daughter; for so it behooued to haue an immaculate mother of God the sonne: and of God the holy ghoste a perfecte pure vndefiled spouse.
3. This is the most pious & probable opinion: thoughe it be not decreed as a poynt of faithe:Sixtus 4. & Pius. 5 in Constit. no may the contrary be called heretically false. Neither can I see, what inconuenience can folowe of this pious opinion: that as our L. Iesus alone was free from all possibility and possession of originall sinne; so our holy virgin was free from all possession, but not from all possibility therof. He was so, in the very nature of his generation, because conceiued by the holy ghost. She, only by miraculous vertue of grace, altering the course of nature. She was indebted by nature to be a childe of wrathe: but an especiall priuiledge of grace payed that debte, and preuented her attachment.
Psal. 8 [...]. Comment. ibidem.
4. And so neuertheles she had neede, and was indeede redeemed of her sonne, both from that debte which she owed, and allso from all those sinnes & euills wherinto without this priuiledge she should haue fallen. So when Dauid said. Thou hast taken out my soule from the lowest hell. Saint Augustin interpreteth those wordes, not as if Dauids soule euer had bene in the lowest hell: but he was so freed that he should neuer come thither. And it is more for the physitian to preuent a sickenes, wherto I am certeinly subiect, then to heale me afterwarde when I haue bene sicke. And so our Sauiour redeemed his mother from sinne which naturally she should haue contracted: and may be estemed a more worthy redemption, then if by sinne she had bene once polluted. And yet she suffered bodily death, and some other humane miseryes, rather as perteyning to her abouesaid debte or nature which she inherited from Adam, then any way belonging to any sinne in herselfe. Or else: thoughe grace had preuented & destroyed all sinne in her soule; yet it had not extinguished, nor was conuenient to destroye the ordinary naturall qualityes of her body: firste, because enduring those, she merited so much more in heauen: secondly, that it might [...] appeare to the worlde she was a true humane creature, of whose pure flesh our Sauiour tooke our true humane nature.
5. If Originall sinne had polluted and possessed her, she had bene during that time abhominable vnto God for such sinne,Petrus Ribaden [...]yra flos Sanct. and in bondage thervnto, and so by it vnto Satan. But was it meete that at any time she should be said to be odious to our lorde? or that the diuell or sinne shoulde haue her subiect in their captiuity? or defiled in pollution? who was to be the mother of God himselfe▪ Secondly, if it were in our pouer, would we not choose to be borne of the most vertuous & vnspotted parents that we coulde? And was it not in the power of God thus to prepare & preserue his mother frō originall sinne? & if it were in his power, doubteles he had will to doo it: because out of question he caried extraordinary loue vnto her; for thoughe primarily she merited not to be his mother, but of his sole mercy he did chuse her & not another; yet hauing made this election, he may be said afterward by his owne law (of honoring parentes) bound in dutifull loue to giue her all the honor & merite possible [Page 39]wherof a pure creature mighte he capable. Wherfore S. Bonauenture concludeth, that in deede our lord could haue made for vs amore comely & beautifull worlde,In speculo cap. 8. but it is probable he could not make for himself a more excellent mother. Thirdly, it was inconuenient in regarde of himselfe that any blemish of originall sinne should defile her soule▪ for the honor or dishonor of the parent redoundeth to the childe: and so it had bene a diminution of his owne honor, to haue bene the sonne of an impure mother.
6. Fourthly, S. Ihon Baptist was sanctified in his mothers wombe, at the very voyce of her who had our Sauiour in her wombe: & is not she herselfe more worthy of a greater priuiledge in the same kind? vidz: the mother of God sooner then the messenger. Fifthly, S. Andrew the Apostle auowched, and after him Theodoret,Abdias in eius vita. lib. 4. Theod. in Cant. lib. 3. that she excelled the cherubim and Seraphim in purity: But how was this, if she had originall sinne? or how is she aboue the Angells in dignity and glory, if she were inferior in purity and grace? or is it meete that any meere creature should be more excellent, or aboue the mother of God?
7. Sixtly, S. Augustin saith he would euer haue her excepted, when he treated of sinne. And as he judged it absurde to suppose that her flesh was eaten of wormes, or corrupted in rottennes, which had norished and giuen substance to the manhood of Christe: and therfore he auowed and beleued her boody to be assumpted into heauen immediatly after her death, according to her story and the tradition of the churche. So, me thinkes it is more inconuenient we should yeild him to be borne of flesh which at my time had bene subject to sinne: for sinne is much more base then the wormes; and pollution of soule, is farre worse then any corruption of body. Seauenthly, I am sure if it were in the handes of any good Christiā to grante her this preheminence, he woulde not deteyne it: why then should he deny to beleeue it in his harte, when it is permitted and commended as a probable and most pious opinion, and when he woulde giue it her if he were able. Eightly, Lib. 1. cap 9. & lib. 6 cap. 49. Cardinal. Barren. in Annotat. martyrol. Decemb. 8. Concil. Basil. ses. 36. & Tridē [...] ses. 5. Sixtus 4. Alexāder 6. Leo. 10. Pius. 5. this pure conception of our blessed Lady hath bene manifested by diuerse reuelations to S. Brigitte, which are amongest those that be approued. And to Elpinus a Reuerend English Abbot: the verity therof confirmed by S. Anselmus Archbish. of Canterbury: and after his solē nization in England of the Feast of her pure conception, it was firste permitted and since receiued in all Catholique cuntryes. Thus doth the Catholique churche honor her. And this hath bene permitted by seuerall Coun [...]ells. And resteth commended by sundry Popes. Wherfore let vs confesse, that as the first Adam was made of earthe before it was cursed with thornes or weedes: so our Lord Iesus the second Adam tooke flesh of her flesh which was blessed and neuer cursed with any nettles of concupiscence, or thornes of originall sinne.
8. O holy Virgin more pure then the heauens! They are moste cleare: and yet but a generall habitation for Sayntes there to see God. Thou werte a speciall tabernacle both to enterteyne God himselfe; and to affoarde him parte of thy substance. O how coulde that be at any time vncleane, where he dwelled! how could that be euer touched with sinne, which he assumed! The diligent Bees wil not harbour in an vncleane hiue, but doth annoynte them with sweete moystures, before they make their hony. The cleanly Ermyne will rather be killed by the Huntesmen, then to saue his life enter into any place which is filthy. Much lesse will the pure wisdome of God dwell in a body subject to sinne: as said wise Solomon: wherfore he allso saith in the Canticles,Sap. 1. Cant. 1. & many Doctors applye it to our blessed Ladie. Thou arte all fayre, O my loe, and in thee there is no spotte. And therfore with the Catholique Churche, let vs say, in her seruice: [Page 40]O holy and immaculate virginity, I know not with what prayses to extolle thee; because whom the heauens coulde not conteyne, thou diddest maynteyne in thy bosome. Blessed arte thou among women; and blessed be the fruite of thy wombe: Because whom the heauens coulde not conteyne, thou diddest maynteyne in thy bosome. O happy and sacred Virgin Mary! O most worthy of all honor: pray for the laity: entreate for the clergy: make request for all deuoute womankinde: O let all sortes finde thy certeyn succor, whosoeuer doo celebrat thy sacred Conception.
9. O founteyn sealed vp for the water oflife: let thy intercession helpe to quench in vs all coales of concupiscence. O Garden of paradise well guarded to keepe the tree of life: let thy prayers preserue vs from too much liberty of our senses, and all loosenes of life. O brightest glasse of Chrystall, without any spotte: obteyne for vs all clearenes of harte and body, freed from all foule thoughtes, or other fleshly pollution.
10 O swetest rose of the valley; fayrest Lily of the mounteyn; o precious balme of Gilead; and comely Cypres of Sion: thy wonderfull beauty of face, and rare comelynes of person, were euer accompanyed with such modesty of countenance, and sobriety of behauior; and besides so blessed with an extraordinary grace; that thy beauty neuer allured but abashed; thy comelynes did not entise but amaze; nor could any harbour an vnchaste thoughte, whiles he behelde thy Virgins eye. O let thy gracious eyes of chastity so looke downe vpon vs in fauour, and for vs so looke vp to thy Sonne in prayer, that we may be always vertuously sober in our actions; religiously ciuill in our speeches; in our very thoughtes pure; and chaste in all our conuersation. All which we earnestly entreate, for the all sufficient merites & mercyes of our Sauiour thy Sonne; and by the immaculate purity of thy conception.
THE MOST GRACIOVS AND WONDERfull remedyes of our originall sinne. Sect. 7.
1. THus was our blessed Lady preuented with grace. But how shall we be made cleane, who are conceiued by such vncleane seede? excepte only as Iob answered: By thee alone, o Lorde: whose grace, saith S. Paul, doth superabounde our sinne. For sinne came by man: but grace is of more power, as proceeding from God. Sinne did not take away from vs all good: nor bring vpon vs all euill. But grace doth deliuer vs from all the euill wherinto we mighte fall; and is sufficient to giue vs all the good we can desire. Adams sinne brought a curse only to his descendentes, and to the earthe: But by the merites of Christe all creatures (except the diuells who hate him) eyther haue or may haue parte of his blessing. For by him not only all mankind is redeemed: but the good Angells are confirmed in their grace: and euen these senceles creatures shalbe renued in their nature.
2. And in the saluation of our soule, there is more force in Gods grace, then in mans sinne: for it is easie, and we are prone to fall, or to dye in sinne: but we are lumpish heauie, and it is exceeding harde to be raysed vp to life of grace. wherfore grace is the stronger, and the more worthy: and therfore we are the more indebted, considering how weake we are, and how vnworthy. And it is maruelous to consider the proportion betwene our sinfull misery, and our gracious remedie: As against originall sinne is appointed Baptisme, to regenerate vs in grace, from that wherin we were generated by nature: that as infantes are defyled by meanes of Adams corruption▪ [Page 41]without their owne facte, so they are washed by meanes of Christes redemption without their owne helpe. Children are spotted before they be aware of it; and they are cleansed before they knowe of it. In their conception, vnwitting; and in their baptisme, ignorante. We are raysed by others, before we haue reason to aske helpe, as by others we were caste downe, before we had sense of our fall. Or if some be of yeares of discretion before they be baptyzed, as infidels conuerted: or if christians after Baptisme become sinners, and come agayne to repentance▪ in the firste sorte the grace of baptisme takes away all sinne originall and actuall, and all punishment eternall and temporall▪ in both sortes, there is first a iustification without foregoing merites, quae fit in homin [...] which of God alone is effected in man; and then a second iustification, quam facit homo in which man doth his parte, and hath following good workes. In w [...]ich second iustice it is reason we follow Gods grace to performe some satisfaction and to obteynes merites, as we had runne after our concupiscence to incurre guiltynes and suffer punishments.
3. All our merites and all our good are deriued from God: but our first iustice in our first conuersion doth so come from him alone, that we are not so much guilty by Adam of originall sinne without our owne faulte, as Christ alone doth iustifye vs from all sinne without our owne merite. O greatnes! O goodnes of grace! more powerfull, and more abundant then sinne. O swete IESVS, who doost in wisdome so answer iustice with mercy, that neither doo we wante any fauour, nor is the lawe vnsatisfyed in all rigor, and euery pointe balanced with conuenient counterpeyse. Sinners in Adam: iuste in Ch [...]iste. In our selues actually and really wicked: throughe Christe truly and inherently iuste. We were inthralled by our sinfull liues: he redeemed vs by his holy death. By his passion and sufferinges he satisfyed for our punishments: and our good workes haue merite by the vertue of his actions.
4. But to insi [...]te especially in his comparison with Adam. His crosse stood vpon Adams graue, there beginning life, where death began. By a tree we perished:S. Hieron· and we were ransomed on a tree. He repayred his churche his beloued spouse, by the water and bloud which issued out of his side dying: as Eua the wife of Adam was taken out of his side sleeping: and by that water he clenseth our spottes of sinne, and by that bloud he purchased to vs the beauty of grace. By occasion of a woman came a generall curse: and a greater blessing by meanes of a woman: wherfore Adam called the firste Eua. and we salute the second quite turning the same letters into Aue. The first man Adam loste all by ambitions pride; because being but a man, he aspired to be as God: and the second man IESVS restored all by obedient humility; who being in deed God, yet descended to become a man.
ALL THE GVILTE OF ORIGINALL SINNE is quite forgiuen in Baptisme: and the first motions of concupiscence are not sinne, vntill we delighte or consent vnto them. Sect. 8.
1. ANd althoughe our Sauiour in Baptisme haue cleared vs from all Guilte of originall sinne; yet not during this life from all temporall punishment therof:S. Amb. as not from Death, hunger, sicknes, nor from all ignorance▪ or motions of concupiscence. And althoughe he hath freed vs from all punishment destroying our soule; yet not from all punishment which may encrease our merite: as they say, sustulit omnem paenam destruentem, non omnem paenam promonentem, and so he hath lefte in vs these infirmityes of our motions [Page 42]in concupiscence of hunger, sicknes, and death, to be as skarres and markes of our soare▪ and woundes which are healed▪ 1. to the intent, that seing, and remembring our hurte, & our helpe,Alexand. de Hales. part. 4. q. 8. de Sac. Bapt. art. 2. we should remayne thankefull, and not forgetfull. 2. to humble vs by consideration of these infirmityes, who else would be proud. 3. to exercise vs in diligence of mortification, and in vigilance of prayers, lest we should be negligent and careles. 4. to affoard vs occasion of more merite, and so to crowne vs with more glory.
2. Or we may lay that he hath freede vs from all effectes and personall punishmetns of originall sinne, which so perteyned to our persons that they would condemne our particuler soules▪ but not from all naturall defectes which necessarily belong to our generall nature, wherby we remayne in the estate of all mankinde: for as a wise phisicyan he hath sufficiently cured euery mans particuler soule, not quite changing his generall nature, abundantly prouiding, and in better sorte, for our corrupte nature to be helped and preserued by grace, rather then to extinguish this nature, and to create another. For he will saue the same which had offended: which is greater mercy to vs, and more power & wisdome in himselfe. And is it not more to preserue a vessell of glasse, then of yron?
3. I said he hath lefte vs subiect to the motions of concupiscence; which are not properly sinne;Concil. Trident. Sess. 5. Ephes. 5. Colos. 1. Ioan. 3. 1. Pet. 2. but only the remnantes and effectes of originall sinne, and inclinations alone to actuall sinne. For Baptisme doth alltogether so abolish originall sinne, that nothing therof remayneth in vs which hath still the true nature of sinne. Otherwise how are we cleansed by his washing? as S. Paul saith. And hath reconciled vs to exhibite vs immaculate. And to be renati, borne agayne by water & the holy ghoste, therby to be as free from originall sinne quasi modo geniti, euen as new borne infantes are cleane from actuall sinne.
4. And in circumcision the foreskin was not imputatiuely but really cut away. In Iordan Naamans leprosy was quite taken away. And S. Gregory saith That he who auouche [...]h that sinnes are not altogether released in Baptisme, Lib. 9. epist. 39. 1. Cor. 15. Rom. 6. Colos. 2. Enchirid. cap. 52.let him say that the Egiptians were not indeede truly drowned in the red sea. And S. Paul proueth▪ that as in Adam all dye, so in Christe all shall be reuiued. viz: truly: verely: really: not so alone estemed or reputed. And that we are buryed together with Christe by Baptisme in his death. S. Augustin inferreth expressely That as in him was fulfilled a true death, so in vs a true remission of sinnes: and as in him a true resurrection, so in vs a true iustification. But the death of Christe and resurrection were true euery way: not true in regarde of somewhat, and in another respecte false: Therfore allso the remission of sinnes is a true death of sinne: not in respect of the Guilte only, but in regarde of all thinges which haue respect of sinne.
5. Not taken away in the Guilte alone (as heretiques auouch) and remayning in the Acte:Vide Bel. Tom. 2. lib. 1. de Baptis. c. [...]3. for how can the Acte of sinne be separated from the Guilte in this concupiscence? Nay they themselues must needes confesse it hath still some Guilte, whiles they say it is still true sinne: for how can true sinne remayne w [...]thout some Guilte? Or if we be free only from the dominion; not free from all blemish or consideration of true sinne (thoughe it be said this blemish is not imputed vnto vs) yet if there remayne true sinne, then are we not in deede free; but in opinion. And if that blemish or spotte remayning, be true sinne: then according to their owne doctrine, it is a true mortall sinne, for they admitte none veniall: But to remayne in true mortall sinne; and yet not to be in fauor of God is impossible for the same person to be in state of grace [...]nd of saluation, and in mortall sinne, and so in state of damnation; all at the same instante; is as possible, as to ioyne light and darknes, Christe & Beliall.
6. But Protestants finding in our weake natures after Baptisme certein motions of concupiscence vnto sinne, they deceiue themselues, supposing these to be in deede sinne. Some of ignorance, because they distinguish not betwene the prouenes, or inclinations [Page 43]of concupiscence; and betwene the Acte of concupiscence, for the firste is most especially perteyning to originall sinne; thoughe after baptisme it is no sinne, but only the effecte of originall sinne. And the second which is an Actuall motion vnto sinne, perteynes rather to Actuall sinne then to originall: to which if there be added consent or full delighte, then it is a complete actuall sinne, otherwise no sinne. These men therfore are deceiued in accompting that originall sinne, which perteyneth to actuall. But some others doo accompte the very firste pronenes or concupiscibility, without any acte or consent, to be of it se [...]fe sinne, because it seemes the roote of sinne. Wherin they doo manifestly admitte that defecte and ignominy of the vertue of our lordes grace in Baptisme, which S· Augustin was so carefull not to admitte, viz: that in baptisme originall sinne only is razed of, not vtterly rooted out.
7. And in this poynte: whether the first motions of our concupiscence be sinne? Caluin himselfe is driuen to confesse the Ancyent Doctors to be against him. His wordes are these. Neyther is it needfull to labour in serching what the Ancyent doo thinke herein, Instit lib. 3. cap. [...].10.when therabout one Augustin may suffice, who faithfully and with great diligence hath collected all their judgements, and a little after, he addes. Yet betwene him and vs there is this difference. That he in deede dare not call the m [...]lady of concupiscence a sinne: but being content to decipher it by the name of Infirmity; he teacheth it then finally to become sinne, when eyther action or consent is added therunto. Which is the same, and no other, then that which S. Iames said. Concupiscence when it hath conceiued bringeth forthe sinn [...]; and sinne, when it is complete, bringeth death. Vpon which wordes S. Gregory, and our venerable Countryman Bede, maketh three daughters or effectes of concupiscence.Cap. 1. 1. suggestion: when any vnlawfull thoughte doth sodeinly present it selfe to our minde; whervnto if we doo not consent, but resiste, it doth not bringe forthe sinne, but a crowne of life. 2. Delectation: when we doo not perfectly resiste the first motion or suggestion, but in a mixte sorte we are somewhat delighted therin, althoughe not with a full, but with an imperfect consent: then hath sinne conceiued venially; not mortally. But in the 3. if we proceede to a deliberate full consent, althoughe it be only in thoughte, yet then is it a complete sinne, either veniall, or mortall, according as the matter of sinne (wherunto we haue consented) is veniall or mortalll. As it is a mortall deadly sinne, to see a woman and with full consent of thoughte deliberately to lust after her: this is a complete sinne bringing forthe death, thoughe it neuer come to action, because as our Sauiour saith, he hath allready committed adultery in his harte: and as he hath fully in thoughte consented, and either purpo [...]ed or deliberately desired to put his thoughte in execution; so if he had meanes he woulde in deede practise it in Action.
8. As for those Textes in the 6. and 7. chapters to the Romanes, thoughe concupiscence be there diuerse times called sinne. Eyther he meaneth concupiscence actuall which hath some delighte or consent. Or else if he vnderstand the first motions which are the remnantes of originall sinne; yet he calleth them sinne improperly; and so these are termed sinne, because they are following effectes and remnantes of originall sinne. Not that either of these after baptisme are in themselues sinne, 2. cor. 5. Et S. Ambros. in hunc locum. Rom. 7. Lib. 1. cō tra duas epist, cap. 10. excepte we doo consent vnto them. In like sorte S. Paul was, soulde vnder sinne: where S. Chrysostome saith, he speaketh in the person of wicked men, not absolutely of himselfe. Or as S. Augustin interpreteth him against the Pelagians: He was soulde, vnder the sinne of Adam; but now, is redeemed throughe Christe our lord. And so he complayneth of some remnantes of that bondage: that he had still the sens [...] of concupiscence; but did not consent: and therfore addeth: what he did; that he did not approoue it, viz: not allowe of those motions which he did fee [...]e. And so: he performed the euill, which he hated: vbi facere se dixit &c. where he [Page 44]said He performed: not by the affection of consent, and fullfilling action, but in the very motion of concupiscence: calling that a Deede, which was but an vnwilling motion of a thoughte. And s [...] the lawe, non concupisces: bindeth against actuall desires with consent: not against the first motions remayning as effectes of originall corruption: and so concupiscere, est, post concuspiscentias ire: and those first motions are fomes peccati, the fewell of sinne and without consent,Rem. 8. no way indeede sinne, no more then wood is fi [...]e, vntill it be k [...]nled. And so [...] 1. the wisdome or sensuality of the flesh, is enemy to God: by which sensuality he allso meaneth actuall sinne, and not originall. And so generally for the moste parte when any Ancyent Doctor calleth concupiscence indefini [...], sinne, they speake of actuall concupiscence with consent. Or doo so terme the effectes of originall sinne after baptisme, not because they are absolutely, sinne but because they are remnants of sinne, and doo allure vnto sinne.
9. If it be said, that all is sinne which agreeth not to the lawe of God, or is [...] It is true; taking sinne in a generall sense for vi [...]ium a defect: as there be vitia naturae, vel artis, defectes of nature, or of arte: viz: to be blind, lame &c▪ and such an [...] or sinne, we may calle our naturall concu [...]iscence; which of it selfe without con [...]ent is no more sinne, speaking properly & strictly, then to be hungry or thirsty against our will. Or no more then dreames of murder, & vnchaste imaginations of men asleepe, wherof they gaue no faulty occasion being awake. And thoughe such dreames doo not agree e [...]actly with the lawe of God, yet who will strictly & properly call them sinnes? They agree not with the lawe in their substance materially: but formally in their intention, they are not against the lawe. As a woman ravi [...]hed or forced against her will, without any consent; the Action materially agreeth not with the lawe exactly: and yet therin who can accompte her guilty of sinne?
10. Finally we cannot say the first motions of cōcupiscence are sinne, because we oughte to abhorre them, & because God doth hate them: for all is not sinne which deserueth to be hated. Because euill of punishment may be hated as well as euil of Gui [...]te: and whatsoeuer allureth to sinne may be hated, thoughe it selfe be not sinne. And so we abhorre the first mot [...]ons of concupiscence, as occasions, not indeede as sinnes. And allmighty God hateth all euill,Sap. 1. S. Aug. lib. 5. in Iul. c. 7. [...]ib. Con [...]es. 10 cap. 28. euen of punishment, and so he detesteth Death, and is said not to haue made death; not as the first Author: sed vt peccati vl [...]or: but as the iust punishe [...] of sinne by death, He hateth all euill, of punishment, or of guilte; in respecte of the evill it selfe, not in respecte of the occasiō of good which he draweth out of the evill. And so of our worldly aflictions, saith S. Augustin. Vvho would suffer miseryes or difficultyes? Thou doost cōmand vs o lord to endure them, not to loue them, none doo loue what they suffer; thoughe to suffer they doo loue: for thoughe he ioye in suffring; yet he had rather he had nothing to suffer. In like sorte we may not desire concupiscence: not because it is sinne except we consent; but because it induceth to sinne, and is troblesome, greiuous &c. neyther ought the iudgment of God to displease vs; who woulde haue it to remayne for an Agony, and exercise of vertue; and tolde his Apostle. My Grace is sufficiēt vnto thee: for his strenghte is perfited in our weakenes.
THE CONCLVSION OF THE FORMER DEclarations about Originall sinne; with some shorte admonitions to mortifie his force. Sect. 9.
1. THus I haue said somewhat of sundry questions about Originalle sinne, wherin if I be tedious to some; yet to others I know it will seeme to shorte. I confesse it is [Page 45]a matter more lamentable, then disputable for all: wherfore in our meditation vpon this corruption, let vs mourne with Dauid. That in iniquityes we were conceiued, and our mothers broughte vs forthe in sinnes.
2. For thoughe Baptisme doo cleanse vs; yet some sorowful remembrance therof is good to humb [...]e vs. Baptisme takes away, omnem labem all the guilte,Innocē. 3. all the spottes and nature of sinne paste; non omnem somitem, not a [...]l the fewell and inclination vnto sinne to come. Wherfore come, o my soule, in our present conforte let vs prayse our Redeemer▪ who had purifyed and washed all the vncleannes of our Birthe: and in our folowing diligence, by the helpe of his grace, let vs be carefull to mortefy and kepe vnder all corruptions of our life. O my soule be thou watchefull ouer my body: I will not say kill my flesh, because it is a parte of my selfe, and I may not hate it: yet remember it was a meanes in our conception, by which the purity was stayned. I say when thou werte infused, it did blemish that lustre and integrity which now thou shouldest haue, if thou werte not in his corrupte prison; thoughe it defiled not the cleannes and purity of thy nature which thou first haddest by creation, and which we may recouer, and better by the grace of Christe, if we keepe our flesh in due mortification. Let vs make gaynes by our losse, and winne more reward by our paynes. O blessed be our Redeemer Iesus, who hath giuen vs this possibility. Let vs resiste and suppresse the motions of our concupiscence, that we may aduance and increase the vigor of our spirite. Nay, o my soule, thou arte bound to doo no lesse: for if in Adam, his soule had not first consented to her owne fond affections and desires, the body had bene yet still in obedience: therfore as the rebellion of the flesh was first occasioned on thy parte (so to pay for this faulte) the disquietnes of continuall concupiscences must be endured by thy mourning patience, and ouercome by thy mortifying diligence.
3. Be thou watchfull ouer thy discerning reason, least ignorance make falsehood truthe: be heedfull to thy irascible corage, least impatience driue a way that which is good: and be carefull about thy concupiscible choyse, least sensuality follow that which is bad. Wheras contrarily, our concupiscibility should only embrace good: our irascibility should only hate bad: and our reason should only be fixed on truthe. But, alas, we are witty and apte for errors, therfore labour to be discrete: we are headdy & subject to passions, therfore endeuour to be moderate: we are headlong & prone to pleasures, therfore striue to be temperate.
4. O my soule, these are our frailtyes: our reason dimme: our passions strong: and sottishnes in our desires: neither is it marueil; for we are conceiued in sinnes: & conceiued in iniquityes. In our carnall generation, the vse of reason is suspended; the heat of luste is enflamed, and pleasure is soughte in vncleannes. O [...] better remedyes, then in the merites and examples of our Redeemer? Let vs vs [...] [...], and prayer, to enlighten our dimmed knowledge: let vs vse patience [...] to humble & to quench our strong enflamed affections: let vs vse mortificat [...] [...] abstinence to restreyne & refreyne our sottish vncle [...] [...]leasures. O swete [...] vs these graces: o most pure immaculate and blessed [...] Mary pray for vs: o most feruorous penitent, Saynt Marie Magdalen, be thou [...] Aduocate: that our regeneration may be more perfect, then our generation was [...]: that whatsoeuer poore integrity we haue, it may he continued: and how great [...] our vncleannes hath bene, that with contrite teares it may be washsd. O we co [...]esse our base birthe, conceiued in sinne, to remember vs to be humble: and because w [...] were conceiued in iniquities, we doo entreat compassion on our naturall frailtyes; for thou arte most graciously pitifull.