Mohammed: Fomenter of political rebellion against the Divinely Ordained Authority of the Holy Roman Emperor

'See how I rend myself,
'see how mangled is Mohammed!
Ahead of me proceeds Alì, in tears,
his face split open from his chin to forelock.
'And all the others whom you see
sowed scandal and schism while they lived,
and that is why they here are hacked asunder.

'A devil's posted there behind us
who dresses us so cruelly,
putting each of this crew again to the sword
'as soon as we have done our doleful round.
For all our wounds have closed
when we appear again before him.
'But who are you to linger on the ridge? --
perhaps you put off going to the torment
pronounced on your own accusation.'
'Death does not have him yet nor does his guilt
lead him to torment,' replied my master,
'but to give him greater knowledge
'I, who am dead indeed, must shepherd him
from circle to circle, through this Hell down here.
And this is as true as that I speak to you.'
On hearing this, more than a hundred souls
halted in the ditch to stare at me
in wonder, each forgetful of his pain.
'You, who perhaps will shortly see the sun
warn Fra Dolcino to provide himself --
unless he'd like to join me here quite soon --
'with stocks of victuals, lest the siege of snow
hand the Novarese the victory
not otherwise so easy to attain.'
One foot raised, halted in mid-stride,
Mohammed spoke these words,
then setting down that foot, went on his way.

Inferno Canto XXVIII

The following is a short history of the Mohammedan political rebellion against the Divinely Ordained Authority of the Holy Roman Emperor by Marsiglio of Padua in his work De translatione Imperii, chapters 3 & 4:

For after his great victory over the Persians, Heraclius oppressed the Persians and the other Eastern nations with too savage a rule, because of which they unanimously seized on the opportunity for revolt. But so as to set aside their obedience to the Roman Empire irrevocably, following the advice of Mahomet, who at the time was allied with rich and powerful Persians, they adopted a different religion, so that on account of different beliefs and faiths or sects they would not return to this first lordship from the other one. In this they followed the example of Jeroboam , who converted the ten tribes that followed him to a different religion so that they might not return to their old and rightful allegiance.

The Greeks took the same or similar action, for wishing to be separated from obedience to the Roman Church; they adopted a different religion or a different ceremony in their ministration, and so fell knowingly into diverse errors. For all their splendid priests, who defend and foment schisms, are Nestorians or Eutictites or Arians or Jacobites or Hebionites. That, then, is what happened in regard to the peoples and nations of those regions in which the insurrection and disobedience already mentioned occurred. For in order that such insurrection would last they induced their followers to break away and leave not just the Roman Empire but Christianity itself, while accepting certain elements common to the law of Moses and top the Gospel, as is made plain in the Koran. For this reason, it may be noted that certain heretical sects were very friendly towards Mahomet and the laws of the Saracens, which are based on the Koran, for instance, the Nestorians, whom Mahomet orders to be treated with honour. For this reason, Richard releates in his chronicles that a certain monk by the name of Sergius, who was a Greek and a Nestorian, gave Mahomet instruction for a long time and hence it arises that the Nestorians have large monasteries under the dominion of the Saracens.


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